HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It is the virus that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Unlike some other viruses, the human body cannot get rid of HIV. That means that once you have HIV, you have it for life.
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HIV-1 is more virulent, easily transmitted and is the cause of the vast majority of HIV infections globally. Scientists generally accept that the known strains or groups of HIV-1 are most closely related to the simian immunodeficiency viruses SIVs endemic in wild ape populations of West Central African forests. Using HIV-1 sequences preserved in human biological samples along with estimates of viral mutation rates, scientists calculate that the jump from chimpanzee to human probably happened during the late 19th or early 20th century, a time of rapid urbanisation and colonisation in equatorial Africa. Exactly when the zoonosis occurred is not known. Some molecular dating studies suggest that HIV-1 group M had its most recent common ancestor MRCA that is, started to spread in the human population in the early 20th century, probably between and Sample analyses resulted in little data due to the rarity of experimental material.
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COVID is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Get the latest CDC public health information. Many Federal agencies have developed public awareness and education campaigns to address HIV prevention, treatment, care, and research. Also included is information about campaigns related to the prevention and diagnosis of hepatitis B and C.
If you remember the s, you will likely summon up the image of the Grim Reaper or a black tombstone when asked to think about AIDS. Those images, embedded in our collective memory by two iconic Australian and British public health campaigns of that decade, reveal how AIDS has been both a medical and a cultural epidemic since it was first clinically observed in the US in We must also remember the role culture plays in shaping our understanding of the virus and those living with it.